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供应链专家详解:跨境电商洋码头“被迫”融资的秘密
文章来源:供应链时代      作者:scmsc      时间:2015/2/13 9:43:12

随着行业最大一笔融资——洋码头1亿美金横空出世,跨境电商再次占据公众焦点。跨境电商从无到有的近10年中,各类因素将市场重新洗牌,既孕育了兰亭集势、环球易购等做大上市的出口电商,也催生了蜜芽宝贝、海豚供应链等新手上路的进口电商。

 

  2014,是跨境电商集中发力的一年。

  随着行业最大一笔融资——洋码头1亿美金横空出世,跨境电商再次占据公众焦点。跨境电商从无到有的近10年中,各类因素将市场重新洗牌,既孕育了兰亭集势、环球易购等做大上市的出口电商,也催生了蜜芽宝贝、海豚供应链等新手上路的进口电商。

  随着13年推出试点城市及14年出台各项细则,似乎预示跨境电商行业正逐步阳光化、清晰化,厮杀也愈发激烈。注入新“血”的洋码头,在这个烧钱的电商时代,最终是成就霸业,还是黯然退出?

  不妨听业内专家、来自海豚供应链的麒麟说个故事。

  洋码头:为荣誉而战

  如果一定要形容洋码头,“用力”这个词会非常贴切。

  作为第一家正规运作的海淘企业,洋码头与各跨境电商试点城市的保税区、口岸,都积极配合、努力开拓,务实的企业作风也获得不错的口碑。但这些都没能掩盖住一个问题:融资能力不强。

  从创业初期庞晓伟投的500万启动资金,到B轮赛领资本投的1亿美金,这期间洋码头与晨兴资本有缘无份、与经纬中国失之交臂,生生错过摇篮里扼杀天猫国际的机会。

  在同样的平台模式下,凭借阿里的资源,崛起迅速的天猫国际将彼此差距拉至数量级。早生几年的洋码头,不得不称后来居上的天猫国际为“老大哥”,说是咬牙切齿也不为过。难怪曾碧波在内部信中略带薄怒,暗讽了VC童鞋“没眼见”。

  但眼下,令人担心的还不止这一件。

  蜜淘、蜜芽宝贝等后起之秀表现尚佳,至少在融资规模上,都在6000万美金左右。同时,流量丰富或资金雄厚的老牌B2C也杀进战场,唯品会、京东、苏宁、聚美优品也想分一杯羹。更不用说,顺丰、网易等似乎“八杆子打不着”的都来插一脚,将局势搅得更乱。

  外有强敌,原本稳坐的老二位置已被严重威胁。加上自家中层骨干被人盯上,人才固定流失,电商行业又是如此烧钱。内忧外患之际,这封感情激烈的内部信是安抚,更是激励。

  因为钱,本身就是一注强心剂。

  跟随战略:第二名的投资意义

  国际买手在平台上开店,通过物流转运,将产品售卖给国内消费者,这种模式是天猫国际与洋码头的最大相似点。不同之处在于洋码头自建物流,在一定程度上保障了真与快。无疑,洋码头在竞争中,凭平台模式无法与阿里抗衡,发展亦会受到自建物流的牵制,不可能收取更高额佣金以盈利。

  既然模式无法盈利,却仍要保持稳健发展,资本的注入就尤为意义重大。用钱投市场、发补贴、抢份额,模式决定了洋码头需要一轮又一轮的融资。加之天使轮与A轮的融资并不算多,电商又是花钱大户,到今天已有些捉襟见肘的洋码头,迫切需要一大笔B轮投资缓解压力。

  因此B轮之后,曾碧波等管理层的股份占比其实已经很低了。用更多资金快速扩大规模,稀释自己的股份占比,这种战略考量实属无奈之选,却比较适合现在的困苦局面。

  好在赛领资本买了洋码头的帐。

  一方面,整个海淘市场蓬勃发展,需求旺盛,极有投资价值。同时洋码头也有自身的优势,它针对买手设计了一套更为成熟的管理方案,虽然受众不多,但作为长尾市场,表现已算不错。尽管只是当下一小股生态链,若经受住考验,也能发展成不小规模。

  另一方面,虽然业内把天猫国际评为老大,洋码头被定为老二,中间横亘着数量级的差距。但倘若洋码头成功采取跟随战略,即便无缘第一的宝座,第二名仍有重要的战略全局意义。也许某日,腾讯、京东就会将其收入囊中。

  行业凛冬将至?

  平台模式所限此前,蜜芽宝贝CEO刘楠认为,“目前的进口电商市场已处于过热的状态,2015年竞争将更加激烈,而资本寒冬也不会太远”。这和曾碧波在内部信中流露的前景预测几乎一致。进口电商大规模引起资本关注,或许意味着风口收紧,凛冬将至。

  然而,这种论断与他们自身的商业模式息息相关。由于大笔资金涌入市场,各家会如火如荼地争夺一二的位置,独立或垂直网站的竞争激烈程度势必会加剧。而经过15年的淘汰与进化,业内前三甲可能会最终敲定。这时,资本只会关注这两三家,别家自然发展受限、融资艰难,资本的寒冬便来临。

  但是,单从消费者与供货商来看,进口电商的前景令人看好。国内消费者对海淘产品的认知度不断提高,也在逐渐形成自己的偏好与习惯。从事海淘行业的淘宝小C店主、微商、各大平台的第三方店铺也开得如火如荼,朝着更为成熟的方向发展。

  至少在三年之内,整个行业都处于比较旺盛的发展期。这种供销两旺的局面,也将逐渐教化消费者、供应商、独立网站彼此适应,找到位置。是以一种模式的寒冬无法代表整体的生态格局。鹿死谁手,尚未分晓。

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