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物流企业应该如何用好大数据?
文章来源:供应链时代      作者:      时间:2018/6/21 0:00:00

随着大数据的应用范围不断扩大,越来越多的企业开始部署大数据战略。通过大数据技术构建数据中心,挖掘出隐藏在数据背后的信息价值,为企业提供有益的帮助,从中获取利益。企业应该把大数据看做是一项战略资源,在战略规划、商业模式和人力资本等方面做出全方位的部署。

  随着大数据的应用范围不断扩大,越来越多的企业开始部署大数据战略。通过大数据技术构建数据中心,挖掘出隐藏在数据背后的信息价值,为企业提供有益的帮助,从中获取利益。企业应该把大数据看做是一项战略资源,在战略规划、商业模式和人力资本等方面做出全方位的部署。

  什么是物流大数据?

  所谓物流的大数据,即运输、仓储、搬运装卸、包装及流通加工等物流环节中涉及的数据、信息等。通过大数据分析可以提高运输与配送效率、降低物流成本、更有效地满足客户服务要求。将所有货物流通的数据、物流快递公司、供求双方有效结合,形成一个巨大的即时信息平台,从而实现快速、高效、经济的物流。信息平台不是简单地为企业客户的物流活动提供管理服务,而是通过对企业客户所处供应链的整个系统或行业物流的整个系统进行详细分析后,提出具有中观指导意义的解决方案。许多专业从事物流数据信息平台的企业形成了物流大数据行业。

  国家出台的政策支持

  目前,国家出台的与大数据相关的物流行业规划和政策包括:《第三方物流信息服务平台建设案例指引》、《商贸物流标准化专项行动计划》、《物流业发展中长期规划(2014-2020年)》、《关于推进物流信息化工作的指导意见》等一系列政策,将大数据、信息化处理方法作为物流行业转型升级的重要指导思想。

  此外,交通运输部正在编制的物流发展“十三五”规划,其中统筹谋划现代物流发展,指出要发展智慧物流,适时研究制定“互联网”货物与物流行动计划,深入推进移动互联网、大数据、云计算等新一代信息技术的应用;强化公共物流信息平台建设,完善平台服务功能。

  物流大数据行业的生命周期比较长,一般要在5-8年,前期的数据积累和沉淀耗时耗力耗财。目前,中国物流大数据产业正处于起步阶段,未来2年有望快速发展,率先实现大数据增值。

  企业如何应用大数据?

  大数据在物流企业中的应用贯穿了整个物流企业的各个环节。主要表现在物流决策、物流企业行政管理、物流客户管理及物流智能预警等过程中。

  1、大数据在物流决策中的应用

  在物流决策中,大数据技术应用涉及到竞争环境的分析与决策、物流供给与需求匹配、物流资源优化与配置等。

  在竞争环境分析中,为了达到利益的最大化,需要与合适的物流或电商等企业合作,对竞争对手进行全面的分析,预测其行为和动向,从而了解在某个区域或是在某个特殊时期,应该选择的合作伙伴。

  物流的供给与需求匹配方面,需要分析特定时期、特定区域的物流供给与需求情况,从而进行合理的配送管理。供需情况也需要采用大数据技术,从大量的半结构化网络数据或企业已有的结构化数据,即二维表类型的数据中获得。

  物流资源的配置与优化方面,主要涉及到运输资源、存储资源等。物流市场有很强的动态性和随机性,需要实时分析市场变化情况,从海量的数据中提取当前的物流需求信息,同时对已配置和将要配置的资源进行优化,从而实现对物流资源的合理利用。

  2、大数据在物流企业行政管理中的应用

  在企业行政管理中也同样可以应用大数据相关技术。例如,在人力资源方面,在招聘人才时,需要选择合适的人才,对人才进行个性分析、行为分析、岗位匹配度分析;对在职人员同样也需要进行忠诚度、工作满意度等分析。

  3、大数据在物流客户管理中的应用

  大数据在物流客户管理中的应用主要表现在客户对物流服务的满意度分析、老客户的忠诚度分析、客户的需求分析、潜在客户分析、客户的评价与反馈分析等方面。

  4、大数据在物流智能预警中的应用

  物流业务具有突发性、随机性、不均衡性等特点,通过大数据分析,可以有效了解消费者偏好,预判消费者的消费可能,提前做好货品调配,合理规划物流路线方案等,从而提高物流高峰期间物流的运送效率。

  大数据已经渗透到物流企业的各个环节,面对大数据这一机遇,物流企业仍需给予高度的重视和支持,正视企业应用大数据时存在的问题。

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